Relics

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Relics

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Deutsch-Englisch-Wörterbuch

relic {Substantiv}. volume_up. "surviving trace or memorial"; "old or old-fashioned person or thing", Abschätzig. barbaric relic - Keynes, [WIRTSCH.] barbarisches Relikt - der Goldstandard. relic karst [GEOL.]. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'relic' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.

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Great for museum or re-enactment living history displays. But the developments of the veneration of relics in the Middle Ages were far too vast to be pursued further.

Not a few of the most famous of the early medieval inscriptions are connected with the same matter. It must suffice to mention the famous Clematius inscription at Cologne , recording the translation of the remains of the so called Eleven thousand Virgins see Krause, "Inscrip d.

Rheinlande", no. Abuses Naturally it was impossible for popular enthusiasm to be roused to so high a pitch in a matter which easily lent itself to error , fraud and greed of gain, without at least the occasional occurrence of many grave abuses.

As early as the end of the fourth century, St. Augustine denouncing certain impostors wandering about in the habit of monks , describes them as making profit by the sale of spurious relics "De op.

Isidore , "De. In the Theodosian Code the sale of relics is forbidden "Nemo martyrem mercetur", VII, ix, 17 , but numerous stories, of which it would be easy to collect a long series, beginning with the writings of St.

Gregory the Great and St. Gregory of Tours , prove to us that many unprincipled persons found a means of enriching themselves by a sort of trade in these objects of devotion, the majority of which no doubt were fraudulent.

At the beginning of the ninth century, as M. What was perhaps in the long run hardly less disastrous than fraud or avarice was the keen rivalry between religious centres, and the eager credulity fostered by the desire to be known as the possessors of some unusually startling relic.

We learn from Cassian, in the fifth century, that there were monks who seized upon certain martyrs' bodies by force of arms, defying the authority of the bishops , and this was a story which we find many times repeated in the Western chronicles of a later date.

In such an atmosphere of lawlessness doubtful relics came to abound. There was always a disposition to regard any human remains accidentally discovered near a church or in the catacombs as the body of a martyr.

Hence, though men like St. Athanasius and St. Martin of Tours set a good example of caution in such cases, it is to be feared that in the majority of instances only a very narrow interval of time intervened between the suggestion that a particular object might be, or ought to be, an important relic, and the conviction that tradition attested it actually to be such.

There is no reason in most cases for supposing the existence of deliberate fraud. The persuasion that a benevolent Providence was likely to send the most precious pignora sanctorum to deserving clients, the practice already noticed of attributing the same sanctity to objects which had touched the shrine as attached to the contents of the shrine itself, the custom of making facsimiles and imitations, a custom which persists to our own day in the replicas of the Vatican statue of St.

Peter or of the Grotto of Lourdes, all these are causes adequate to account for the multitude of unquestionably spurious relics with which the treasuries of great medieval churches were crowded.

In the case of the Nails with which Jesus Christ was crucified, we can point to definite instances in which that which was at first venerated as having touched the original came later to be honoured as the original itself.

Join to this the large license given to the occasional unscrupulous rogue in an age not only utterly uncritical but often curiously morbid in its realism, and it becomes easy to understand the multiplicity and extravagance of the entries in the relic inventories of Rome and other countries.

On the other hand it must not be supposed that nothing was done by ecclesiastical authority to secure the faithful against deception. Such tests were applied as the historical and antiquarian science of that day was capable of devising.

Very often however, this test took the form of an appeal to some miraculous sanction, as in the well known story repeated by St. Ambrose, according to which, when doubt arose which of the three crosses discovered by St.

Helena was that of Christ , the healing of a sick man by one of them dispelled all further hesitation.

Similarly Egbert, Bishop of Trier , in , doubting as to the authenticity of what purported to be the body of St. Celsus, "lest any suspicion of the sanctity of the holy relics should arise, during Mass after the offertory had been sung, threw a joint of the finger of St.

Celsus wrapped in a cloth into a thurible full of burning coals, which remained unhurt and untouched by the fire the whole time of the Canon" Mabillon "Acta SS.

The decrees of synods upon this subject are generally practical and sensible, as when, for example, Bishop Quivil of Exeter , in after recalling the prohibition of the General Council of Lyons against venerating recently found relics unless they were first of all approved by the Roman Pontiff , adds: "We command the above prohibition to be carefully observed by all and decree that no person shall expose relics for sale, and that neither stones, nor fountains, trees, wood, or garments shall in any way be venerated on account of dreams or on fictitious grounds.

Nevertheless it remains true that many of the more ancient relics duly exhibited for veneration in the great sanctuaries of Christendom or even at Rome itself must now be pronounced to be either certainty spurious or open to grave suspicion.

To take one example of the latter class, the boards of the Crib Praesaepe — a name which for much more than a thousand years has been associated, as now, with the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore—can only be considered to be of doubtful.

In his monograph "Le memorie Liberiane dell' Infanzia di N. Cozza Luzi frankly avows that all positive evidence for the authenticity of the relics of the Crib etc.

Strangely enough, an inscription in Greek uncials of the eighth century is found on one of the boards, the inscription having nothing to do with the Crib but being apparently concerned with some commercial transaction.

It is hard to explain its presence on the supposition that the relic is authentic. Similar difficulties might he urged against the supposed "column of the flagellation" venerated at Rome in the Church of Santa Prassede and against many other famous relics.

Still, it would be presumptuous in such cases to blame the action of ecclesiastical authority in permitting the continuance of a cult which extends back into remote antiquity.

On the one hand no one is constrained to pay homage to the relic, and supposing it to be in fact spurious, no dishonour is done to God by the continuance of an error which has been handed down in perfect good faith for many centuries.

On the other hand the practical difficulty of pronouncing a final verdict upon the authenticity of these and similar relics must be patent to all.

Each investigation would be an affair of much time and expense, while new discoveries might at any moment reverse the conclusions arrived at.

Further, devotions of ancient date deeply rooted in the heart of the peasantry cannot be swept away without some measure of scandal and popular disturbance.

To create this sensation seems unwise unless the proof of spuriousness is so overwhelming as to amount to certainty.

Hence there is justification for the practice of the Holy See in allowing the cult of certain doubtful ancient relics to continue.

Meanwhile, much has been done by quietly allowing many items in some of the most famous collections of relics to drop out of sight or by gradually omitting much of the solemnity which formerly surrounded the exposition of these doubtful treasures.

For illustration's sake reference may be made to the Count de Riant's work "Exuviae Constantinopolitanae" or to the many documents printed by Mgr.

Barbier de Monault regarding Rome , particularly in vol. In most of these ancient inventories, the extravagance and utter improbability of many of the entries can not escape the most uncritical.

Moreover though some sort of verification seems often to be traceable even in Merovingian times, still the so called authentications which have been printed of this early date seventh century are of a most primitive kind.

When Jesus healed the blind man in John , did the Lord use magic mud and spittle? Was it actually a magic potion he mixed in the clay, or was it simply that Jesus saw fit to use matter in association with the conferral of his grace?

The Lord is no dualist. He made matter, he loves matter, and he had no qualms about becoming matter himself to accomplish our redemption.

In fact, from what we know about the way early Christians preserved the bones of those killed during the persecutions, that would be unusual.

So it would be proper for several cities to claim to have the relics of a single saint. Now for the classic argument. Either way, the charge is nonsense.

In , a Frenchman, Rohault de Fleury, catalogued all the relics of the True Cross, including relics that were said to have existed but were lost.

He measured the existing relics and estimated the volume of the missing ones. Then he added up the figures and discovered that the fragments, if glued together, would not have made up more than one-third of a cross.

The scandal was that most of the True Cross, after being unearthed in Jerusalem in the fourth century, was lost again! Certainly nothing he said indicates that.

Have there been any frauds? Reliquaries are containers used to protect and display relics. While frequently taking the form of caskets, they have many other forms including simulations of the relic encased within e.

Since the relics themselves were considered valuable, they were enshrined in containers crafted of or covered with gold, silver, gems, and enamel.

In the absence of real ways of assessing authenticity, relic-collectors became prey to the unscrupulous, and some extremely high prices were paid.

Forgeries proliferated from the very beginning. Augustine already denounced impostors who wandered around disguised as monks, making a profit from the sale of spurious relics.

Pieces of the True Cross were one of the most highly sought after of such relics; many churches claimed to possess a piece of it, so many that John Calvin famously remarked that there were enough pieces of the True Cross to build a ship from.

By the middle of the 16th century, the number of relics in Christian churches became enormous, and there was practically no possibility to distinguish the authentic from the falsification, since both of them had been in the temples for centuries and were objects for worship.

Calvin says that the saints have two or three or more bodies with arms and legs, and even a few extra limbs and heads.

Due to the existence of counterfeit relics, the Church began to regulate the use of relics. Canon Law required the authentication of relics if they were to be publicly venerated.

They had to be sealed in a reliquary and accompanied by a certificate of authentication, signed and sealed by someone in the Congregation for Saints , [37] or by the local Bishop where the saint lived.

Without such authentication, relics are not to be used for public veneration. The documents and reliquaries of authenticated relics are usually affixed with a wax seal.

In Catholic theology, sacred relics must not be worshipped, because only God is worshipped and adored.

Instead, the veneration given to them was " dulia ". Saint Jerome declared, "We do not worship, we do not adore, for fear that we should bow down to the creature rather than to the Creator, but we venerate the relics of the martyrs in order the better to adore Him whose martyrs they are.

The sale or disposal by other means of "sacred relics" meaning first and second class without the permission of the Apostolic See is nowadays strictly forbidden by canon of the Code of Canon Law.

Peter's chains , preserved in San Pietro in Vincoli , Rome, a second-class relic. Main Altar of St. Relics of St. Demetrius in the cathedral of Thessalonika , Greece.

The importance of relics in the Byzantine world can be seen from the veneration given to the pieces of the True Cross.

Many great works of Byzantine enamel are staurothekes, or relics containing fragments of the True Cross. Other significant relics included the girdle worn by the Virgin , and pieces of the body or clothing of saints.

Such relics called contact relics , or secondary relics were, however, scarce and did not provide most believers with ready access to proximity to the holy.

The growth in the production and popularity of reproducible contact relics in the fifth and sixth centuries testifies to the need felt for more widespread access to the divine.

These contact relics usually involved the placing of readily available objects, such as pieces of cloth, clay tablets, or water then bottled for believers, in contact with a relic.

Alternatively, such objects could be dipped into water which had been in contact with the relic such as the bone of a saint. These relics, a firmly embedded part of veneration by this period, increased the availability of access to the divine but were not infinitely reproducible an original relic was required , and still usually required believers to undertake pilgrimage or have contact with somebody who had.

The earliest recorded removal, or translation of saintly remains was that of Saint Babylas at Antioch in , but, partly perhaps because Constantinople lacked the many saintly graves of Rome, they soon became common in the Eastern Empire, though still prohibited in the West.

The Eastern capital was therefore able to acquire the remains of Saints Timothy , Andrew and Luke , and the division of bodies also began, the 5th century theologian Theodoretus declaring that "Grace remains entire with every part".

The veneration of relics continues to be of importance in the Eastern Orthodox Church. As a natural outgrowth of the concept in Orthodox theology of theosis , the physical bodies of the saints are considered to be transformed by divine grace —indeed, all Orthodox Christians are considered to be sanctified by living the mystical life of the Church, and especially by receiving the Sacred Mysteries Sacraments.

In the Orthodox service books , the remains of the departed faithful are referred to as "relics", and are treated with honour and respect.

For this reason, the bodies of Orthodox Christians are not traditionally embalmed. The veneration of the relics of the saints is of great importance in Orthodoxy, and very often churches will display the relics of saints prominently.

In a number of monasteries , particularly those on the Holy Mountain Mount Athos in Greece , all of the relics the monastery possesses are displayed and venerated each evening at Compline.

Thus Orthodox teaching warns the faithful against idolatry and at the same time remains true to scriptural teaching vis. The examination of the relics is an important step in the glorification canonization of new saints.

Sometimes, one of the signs of sanctification is the condition of the relics of the saint. Some saints will be incorrupt , meaning that their remains do not decay under conditions when they normally would natural mummification is not the same as incorruption [ clarification needed ].

Sometimes even when the flesh does decay the bones themselves will manifest signs of sanctity. They may be honey colored or give off a sweet aroma.

Some relics will exude myrrh. The absence of such manifestations is not necessarily a sign that the person is not a Saint.

Relics play a major role in the consecration of a church. The consecrating bishop will place the relics on a diskos paten in a church near the church that is to be consecrated, they will then be taken in a cross procession to the new church, carried three times around the new structure and then placed in the Holy Table altar as part of the consecration service.

The relics of saints traditionally, always those of a martyr are also sewn into the antimension which is given to a priest by his bishop as a means of bestowing faculties upon him i.

The antimens is kept on the High Place of the Holy Table altar , and it is forbidden to celebrate the Divine Liturgy Eucharist without it. Occasionally, in cases of fixed altars, the relics are built in the altar table itself and sealed with a special mixture called wax-mastic.

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Relics

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Reliquien aus Köln. rel·ic [ˈrelɪk] SUBST. 1. relic (object): relic · Relikt. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für relics im Online-Wörterbuch chickareeridgerunners.com (​Deutschwörterbuch). chickareeridgerunners.com | Übersetzungen für 'relics' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Many translated example sentences containing "relics" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

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