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French School. Robert Kretzchmar. David McLain. As part of this appointment, Marco travelled extensively inside China, living in the emperor's lands for 17 years.
Kublai initially refused several times to let the Polos return to Europe, as he appreciated their company and they became useful to him. They later decided to return to their home.
They returned to Venice in , after 24 years, with many riches and treasures. Marco Polo returned to Venice in with his fortune converted into gemstones.
At this time, Venice was at war with the Republic of Genoa. He was probably caught by Genoans in a skirmish in , off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta  and not during the battle of Curzola September , off the Dalmatian coast,  a claim which is due to a later tradition 16th century recorded by Giovanni Battista Ramusio.
He spent several months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa ,  who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China.
It depicts the Polos' journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far East , including China, India, and Japan.
Polo was finally released from captivity in August ,  and returned home to Venice, where his father and uncle in the meantime had purchased a large palazzo in the zone named contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo Corte del Milion.
Marco and his uncle Maffeo financed other expeditions, but likely never left Venetian provinces, nor returned to the Silk Road and Asia. Pietro d'Abano philosopher, doctor and astrologer based in Padua , reports having spoken with Marco Polo about what he had observed in the vault of the sky during his travels.
Marco told him that during his return trip to the South China Sea , he had spotted what he describes in a drawing as a star "shaped like a sack" in Latin : ut sacco with a big tail magna habens caudam , most likely a comet.
Astronomers agree that there were no comets sighted in Europe at the end of , but there are records about a comet sighted in China and Indonesia in Marco Polo gave Pietro other astronomical observations he made in the Southern Hemisphere , and also a description of the Sumatran rhinoceros , which are collected in the Conciliator.
In he is mentioned in a Venetian document among local sea captains regarding the payment of taxes. In , Polo was confined to bed, due to illness.
His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed by him as co-executrices. He divided up the rest of his assets, including several properties, among individuals, religious institutions, and every guild and fraternity to which he belonged.
The will was not signed by Polo, but was validated by the then-relevant " signum manus " rule, by which the testator only had to touch the document to make it legally valid.
An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly, and the reconstruction of the original text is a matter of textual criticism.
A total of about copies in various languages are known to exist. Before the availability of printing press , errors were frequently made during copying and translating, so there are many differences between the various copies.
Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic. Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian.
The oldest surviving manuscript is in Old French heavily flavoured with Italian;  According to the Italian scholar Luigi Foscolo Benedetto, this "F" text is the basic original text, which he corrected by comparing it with the somewhat more detailed Italian of Giovanni Battista Ramusio, together with a Latin manuscript in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana.
Other early important sources are R Ramusio's Italian translation first printed in , and Z a fifteenth-century Latin manuscript kept at Toledo, Spain.
One of the early manuscripts Iter Marci Pauli Veneti was a translation into Latin made by the Dominican brother Francesco Pipino in , just a few years after Marco's return to Venice.
Since Latin was then the most widespread and authoritative language of culture, it is suggested that Rustichello's text was translated into Latin for a precise will of the Dominican Order , and this helped to promote the book on a European scale.
The first English translation is the Elizabethan version by John Frampton published in , The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo , based on Santaella's Castilian translation of the first version in that language.
The published editions of Polo's book rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule.
The English translation by A. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. The book opens with a preface describing his father and uncle travelling to Bolghar where Prince Berke Khan lived.
A year later, they went to Ukek  and continued to Bukhara. There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khan , who had never met Europeans.
Kublai received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system.
Kublai Khan requested also that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egypt , and returned to Venice in or to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marco to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.
They sailed to Acre , and then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. The Polos wanted to sail straight into China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland through the Silk Road , until reaching Kublai's summer palace in Shangdu , near present-day Zhangjiakou.
In one instance during their trip, the Polos joined a caravan of travelling merchants whom they crossed paths with. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by bandits , who used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them.
The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved. Marco knew four languages, and the family had accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience that was useful to Kublai.
It is possible that he became a government official;  he wrote about many imperial visits to China's southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma.
They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler.
In , Kublai's great-nephew, then ruler of Persia , sent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party—which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks.
The party sailed to the port of Singapore ,  travelled north to Sumatra ,  and sailed west to the Point Pedro port of Jaffna under Savakanmaindan and to Pandyan of Tamilakkam.
The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people not including the crew in the convoy only eighteen had survived including all three Polos.
The British scholar Ronald Latham has pointed out that The Book of Marvels was, in fact, a collaboration written in — between Polo and a professional writer of romances, Rustichello of Pisa.
Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian language , which was the language of culture widespread in northern Italy between the subalpine belt and the lower Po between the 13th and 15th centuries.
Latham also argued that Rustichello may have glamorised Polo's accounts, and added fantastic and romantic elements that made the book a bestseller.
For example, the opening introduction in The Book of Marvels to "emperors and kings, dukes and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romance Rustichello had written several years earlier, and the account of the second meeting between Polo and Kublai Khan at the latter's court is almost the same as that of the arrival of Tristan at the court of King Arthur at Camelot in that same book.
Apparently, from the very beginning, Marco's story aroused contrasting reactions, as it was received by some with a certain disbelief.
Francesco Pipino solemnly affirmed the truthfulness of the book and defined Marco as a "prudent, honoured and faithful man".
He also relates that before dying, Marco Polo insisted that "he had told only a half of the things he had seen". According to some recent research of the Italian scholar Antonio Montefusco, the very close relationship that Marco Polo cultivated with members of the Dominican Order in Venice suggests that local fathers collaborated with him for a Latin version of the book, which means that Rustichello's text was translated into Latin for a precise will of the Order.
Since Dominican fathers had among their missions that of evangelizing foreign peoples cf. At the time, there was open discussion of a possible Christian-Mongul alliance with an anti-Islamic function.
At the council, Pope Gregory X promulgated a new Crusade to start in in liaison with the Mongols. Since its publication, some have viewed the book with skepticism.
It has however been pointed out that Polo's accounts of China are more accurate and detailed than other travellers' accounts of the periods.
Polo had at times refuted the 'marvellous' fables and legends given in other European accounts, and despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few of the descriptions of irrational marvels.
In many cases where present mostly given in the first part before he reached China, such as mentions of Christian miracles , he made a clear distinction that they are what he had heard rather than what he had seen.
It is also largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta who had confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal.
Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique.
Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China.
His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century.
According to some Croatian sources, the exact date and place of birth are "archivally" [ clarification needed ] unknown. Sceptics have long wondered if Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book.
While Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of China , tea , Chinese characters , chopsticks , or footbinding.
Haeger argued that Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also raised the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions.
Supporters of Polo's basic accuracy countered on the points raised by sceptics such as footbinding and the Great Wall of China.
Historian Stephen G. Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders.
They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties.
The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta , who asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time.
Haw also argued that footbinding was not common even among Chinese during Polo's time and almost unknown among the Mongols.
While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate ,  no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practised in an extreme form at that time.
In addition to Haw, a number of other scholars have argued in favour of the established view that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book.
During this meeting, Marco gave to Pietro details of the astronomical observations he had made on his journey. Reviewing Haw's book, Peter Jackson author of The Mongols and the West has said that Haw "must surely now have settled the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China".
Her book can only be described as deceptive, both in relation to the author and to the public at large. Questions are posted that, in the majority of cases, have already been answered satisfactorily Her conclusion fails to consider all the evidence supporting Marco Polo's credibility.
Some scholars believe that Marco Polo exaggerated his importance in China. The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,  while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghostwriter Rustichello da Pisa.
And the same Marco Polo, of whom this book relates, ruled this city for three years. This sentence in The Book of Marvels was interpreted as Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou.
This claim has raised some controversy. According to David Morgan no Chinese source mentions him as either a friend of the Emperor or as the governor of Yangzhou — indeed no Chinese source mentions Marco Polo at all.
However, in the s the Chinese scholar Peng Hai identified Marco Polo with a certain "Boluo", a courtier of the emperor, who is mentioned in the Yuanshi "History of Yuan" since he was arrested in by an imperial dignitary named Saman.
The accusation was that Boluo had walked on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, in contravention of the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides of the road inside the city.
The date could correspond to the first mission of which Marco Polo speaks. If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources.
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Does not appear. Prince Nayan. Baljinnyamyn Amarsaikhan. After three years crossing seas, deserts and the Silk Road, a young Marco Polo finds himself a prisoner of the great Kublai Khan.
Kublai learns of betrayal by his brother Ariq of Karakorum during the siege of the farming city of WuChang, as Kublai Khan battles his warmonger brother for rule over Mongolia.
As the two great mongol armies are arrayed against each other, Kublai and Ariq face off mano-a-mano. Marco learns that justice in Khan's Imperial City is swift as it is deadly.
Marco begins a dangerous relationship with the beautiful Blue Princess Kokachin as tensions grow between Kublai and Xiangyang 's cunning Chancellor.
From Hundred Eyes, Marco learns about Kung Fu, supreme skill from hard work, and how practice, preparation, and repetition creates mastery.
The Song Chancellor sends the heads of Mongol warriors to the Khan. Marco finds out that Kokachin is the last of Bauyat tribe. Kublai's wife counsels Kublai to choose wisdom over wrath.
Marco wrestles with a flirtatious Khutulun at the feast. Jingim complains to Kublai about his humiliation at the feast.
Kublai questions Marco, who lies, which has shocking results. Marco rides to Kokachin's message tree, and is attacked by a deadly concealed snake.
As war looms with the walled city of Xiangyang , Prince Jingim tests his diplomacy skills with the Song while Kublai questions Marco's allegiance.
Marco's father and uncle return. Marco seeks a sword from his father to protect Blue Princess Kokachin. Vice Regent Yusuf imprisons Marco, his father, and his uncle for smuggling.
In chains they are brought before Kublai for stealing silk worms, a crime punishable by death. Kokachin prepares for escape.
Prince Jingim successfully negotiates peace with the Chinese Song envoy. Kublai charges Marco with deciding the punishment for his father and uncle's crime.
Daniel Minahan. Marco searches for the mastermind behind a murderous plot, while Prince Jingim weighs the risks of retaliation.
A group of three Hashshashin assassins infiltrates Kublai's palace and attempts to kill him. He is hit with scorpion poison.
Marco knows where the Hashshashin are, and Prince Jingim orders a group to investigate. Kokachin advises Marco to run.
Sabbah leads Byamba and Marco to a meeting with the old man of the mountain. The old man asks Marco to join them. On the eve of an auspicious ceremony, Marco searches for the culprit behind the assassination attempted on Kublai Khan, even as a new one takes shape.
Mei Lin attempts to assassinate the Mongol queen Chabi with poisoned lipstick, but instead kisses and kills one of the ladies in the harem.
There is a celebration for Kublai upon his return to health, and Mei Lin tries to assassinate Chabi by force. However, she fails and is captured.
Brought before Kublai, she claims she did it for Ling Ling, her daughter. David Petrarca. Marco and Hundred Eyes take on a dangerous mission to infiltrate the walled city of Xiangyang, while its Chancellor struggles to hold on to power.
Marco draws a plan of the city from inside the city. Hundred Eyes tries to kill Jia but fails and escapes. Marco shows Kublai that there is a weak spot in the wall and that they should mobilize now.
Khutulun allows herself to be bested by Byamba and begins a romance as they start to make war plans. Za Bing, Kokachin's bodyguard is killed by Tulgu.
Kokachin shoots Tulgu with an arrow. When Kublai sets his sights — and his army — on taking the walled city of Xiangyang, Marco's allegiance is tested.
The village of Wu Chang, the primary supply town for XiangYang, is taken. Kublai arrives at Xiangyang and parleys with Jia.
Jia thinks that the Mongol Queen Chabi is dead, but Kublai reveals that she is alive and well. Jia realizes that he has been lied to by Zhang Fei who commits suicide in front of Jia.
Marco befriends a prisoner but is later horrified when he finds that all prisoners are being butchered and rendered as weapon fuel. He finds Kokachin in his tent, and she confesses that she is not a princess but a peasant girl that just happened to be in the palace when the Mongols invaded.